A South Korean court has fined the parents of a teenage rapist more than $60,000 (£40,000) for failing to supervise their son.
The 18-year-old, who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, raped a local seven-year-old girl in 2006.
The court said the boy had grown up watching pornography and had imitated a film he had seen, during the attack.
It said his parents could have prevented the crime with appropriate education, but neglected their duty.
The teenager is serving a 10-year sentence for the rape, but a court in Seoul ruled that his parents were also liable for his crime.
A court statement said: "The parents could have prevented the crime with appropriate education but failed to show enough attention to their child.
"They neglected their duty to raise their child so that he can properly adjust to society."
The girl's parents were seeking 225m won ($165,000; £111,000) in damages.
The identities of all the parties involved in the case have been withheld.
Analysts say the case raises many questions about the extent to which parents can be held responsible for the actions of their children.